## CMST: Specific question discussion

Elaborate on the merits of specific tournaments or have general theoretical discussion here.
Muriel Axon
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Since ecology / evolution is my hobbyhorse:

- I liked the bonus on urban environmental sciences!
- Could I see the bonus on species abundance distributions? It felt like the part on "neutral" conflated two related, but distinct ideas, and the part on Fisher's log-series was definitely a deep cut!
- I would also like to see the TU on fitness; I saw Paul Turner speak at a seminar, so in part, I just want to see what that clue is about!
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Muriel Axon wrote: - Could I see the bonus on species abundance distributions? It felt like the part on "neutral" conflated two related, but distinct ideas, and the part on Fisher's log-series was definitely a deep cut!
- I would also like to see the TU on fitness; I saw Paul Turner speak at a seminar, so in part, I just want to see what that clue is about!
2. Answer the following questions about relative species abundance, for 10 points each:
[10] On an island, if the number of species is plotted against the log of their abundance, the graph takes on this statistical distribution. The central limit theorem implies that the mean of samples of a random variable converges to this distribution.
ANSWER: normal distribution [or Gaussian distribution]
[10] The phenomenon that rare species are common can be explained by this theory, which is often called the “null hypothesis” of evolution, since it contends that evolutionary changes are caused by random genetic drift rather than natural selection.
ANSWER: neutral theory of molecular evolution
[10] A lognormal distribution of species on an island can be obtained from a metacommunity with this relative abundance distribution. This distribution states that number of species of abundance n is equal to “alpha times x-to-the-n over n,” where alpha and x are constants specific to the community.
ANSWER: Fisher’s logarithm series [prompt on Fisher series]
<RD, Biology>
6. In a study by Paul E. Turner, this quantity was increased when cloned high-multiplicity examples of RNA phage phi six did not share intracellular products. The difference between two forms of this quantity symbolized “f-sub-i of x” and “phi of x,” respectively, is set equal to “the derivative of x-sub-i, divided by x-sub-i” in the replicator equation. This quantity for XX must be greater than this quantity for XY for an ESS to occur. The fixation probability of a mutation is related to its effect on this quantity due to clonal (*) interference. The sum of this quantity is always less than or equal to V in a classic model describing the interaction between hawks and doves. Direct and indirect reciprocity increase the inclusive form of this quantity, which was introduced by W.D. Hamilton. The change in this quantity is maximized in the optimal strategy of a payoff matrix in evolutionary game theory. For 10 points, name this quantity which represents an organism’s ability to pass on its genes.
<RD, Biology>
Aseem Keyal
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Muriel Axon
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

aseem.keyal wrote:[10] The phenomenon that rare species are common can be explained by this theory, which is often called the “null hypothesis” of evolution, since it contends that evolutionary changes are caused by random genetic drift rather than natural selection.
ANSWER: neutral theory of molecular evolution
Neutral theory in ecology (Hubbell's "unified neutral theory of biogeography") is analogous to, but not the same as, neutral theory in molecular evolution. (The core similarity is that fitness is "neutral" to species identity or genetic variants -- hence no selection.) The first clue seems ecological, but the rest is evolutionary, so they're just not referring to the same thing. ("Rare species are common" is also an odd way to phrase that; maybe "there are many rare species"?)
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Muriel Axon wrote:Since ecology / evolution is my hobbyhorse:

- I liked the bonus on urban environmental sciences!
Could I see this bonus? If it's the bonus I'm thinking of it stumped me and I'd like to look up the stuff it talked about.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Could the epsilon-delta tossup be posted?
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Muriel Axon wrote:
aseem.keyal wrote:[10] The phenomenon that rare species are common can be explained by this theory, which is often called the “null hypothesis” of evolution, since it contends that evolutionary changes are caused by random genetic drift rather than natural selection.
ANSWER: neutral theory of molecular evolution
Neutral theory in ecology (Hubbell's "unified neutral theory of biogeography") is analogous to, but not the same as, neutral theory in molecular evolution. (The core similarity is that fitness is "neutral" to species identity or genetic variants -- hence no selection.) The first clue seems ecological, but the rest is evolutionary, so they're just not referring to the same thing. ("Rare species are common" is also an odd way to phrase that; maybe "there are many rare species"?)
Sorry about this, I conflated the two theories. This bonus part will be edited to make the distinction clear.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

16. Answer the following about planting trees in urban spaces to mitigate the negative consequences of urbanization, for 10 points each:
[10] Planting trees along sidewalks and throughout cities is beneficial because their shading is very effective at mitigating an effect named for these locations, in which an urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. Robert MacArthur and E.O. Wilson coined the term for the biogeography of these isolated locations.
ANSWER: islands [accept urban heat island effect; prompt on UHI effect]
[10] A limiting factor in the use of trees in urban areas is their production of the “biogenic” variety of these compounds. Harmful tropospheric ozone is formed when these compounds, such as isoprene and its derivatives, react with sunlight and abundant NOx compounds produced in fossil fuel emission.
ANSWER: biogenic VOCs [or volatile organic compounds]
[10] A tree’s relative impact on its environment may be estimated by calculating the “projection area” named for this portion of the tree. Consisting of the tree’s outward-growing foliage and branches, this portion of the tree is also characterized by its namesake volume-index, radius, and height.
ANSWER: tree crown [accept crown projection area or crown radius or crown volume index or crown height]
<RH, Biology>
15. A textbook by Howard Keisler explicitly foregoes using this statement in any of its proofs. This statement was formalized after a mathematician examined elliptic functions proposed by his teacher Christoph Gudermann, leading to the development of uniform convergence. Internal set theory grounds Abraham Robinson’s alternative to this statement, and states that a value x tends to a if and only if for every e, a function f of “x plus e” has a certain property. This statement was first formally used by Karl (*) Weierstrass, who then used it to prove a special case of the intermediate value theorem. Nonstandard analysis foregoes the usage of this statement, which was first used in a nonrigorous fashion in the textbook Cours d’Analyse by Cauchy. This statement allows a function to output values as arbitrarily close to a value L by letting the input to the function approach another value c. For 10 points, name this method of defining a limit which is named for two Greek letters.
ANSWER: epsilon-delta definition of a limit
<IJ, Math>
Aseem Keyal
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

aseem.keyal wrote:
15. A textbook by Howard Keisler explicitly foregoes using this statement in any of its proofs. This statement was formalized after a mathematician examined elliptic functions proposed by his teacher Christoph Gudermann, leading to the development of uniform convergence. Internal set theory grounds Abraham Robinson’s alternative to this statement, and states that a value x tends to a if and only if for every e, a function f of “x plus e” has a certain property. This statement was first formally used by Karl (*) Weierstrass, who then used it to prove a special case of the intermediate value theorem. Nonstandard analysis foregoes the usage of this statement, which was first used in a nonrigorous fashion in the textbook Cours d’Analyse by Cauchy. This statement allows a function to output values as arbitrarily close to a value L by letting the input to the function approach another value c. For 10 points, name this method of defining a limit which is named for two Greek letters.
ANSWER: epsilon-delta definition of a limit
<IJ, Math>
Looking back over this, I wonder if a Description Acceptable tag, plus a change to "this method" (being sure to nail down the clues tightly in that case) might play better.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Circling back to the Minnelli tossup, I think you should've at least thrown in a mention of Gigi, although maybe that's just the awards-show nerd in me talking.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Ironically I thought I was buzzing on a description of Gigi!
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Can I see the tossup on Vmax?
Jeremy "JJ" Tsai
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

geremy wrote:Can I see the tossup on Vmax?
McClure developed a method of measuring this quantity that relies on “auxiliary” species, in which this quantity is proportional to one minus F. Ratios of values of this quantity are used to calculate reverse and forward commitment factors. The use of coupled assays to measure this quantity can eliminate the lag phase, during which this quantity rapidly increases. When this quantity is large, it can be measured by ejecting two materials through a multi-jet mixer into an observation port, where it is “stopped” by a syringe; that device is a stopped-flow apparatus. This quantity is proportional to the specificity constant, which is on the order of ten-to-the-ninth in (*) diffusion-limited processes. The inverse of this quantity is plotted on the y-axis of a “double reciprocal” plot, whose y-intercept is equal to maximum value of this quantity. This quantity is equal to “V-max times concentration of S, over K-m plus concentration of S” in the Michaelis-Menten model. For 10 points, name this quantity that for a reaction is increased through the addition of an enzyme.
ANSWER: reaction rate [accept rate constant; accept V-max before mention]
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Aseem Keyal
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Can the tossups on "Senegal" and "Nyerere" be posted please?
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Noble Rot wrote:Can the tossups on "Senegal" and "Nyerere" be posted please?
The paramilitary group FLAM is headquartered in this country and represents the halpulaar population in this country’s northern neighbor. This country dissolved a short-lived federation with its eastern neighbor amidst tensions between its Catholic first president and the Muslim opposition leader Cheikh Tidiane Sy (“sheck tee-dee-AHN see”). Protests over unequal compensation for black tirailleurs (“tee-rye-YURZ”) in the French army led to the Thiaroye (“tyah-RWAH”) massacre in this country. This country entered a loose confederation with a neighboring country after its army defeated a 1981 coup attempt against that neighbor’s leader, (*) Dawda Jawara. The Jola ethnic group has led a decades-long separatist movement in this country’s southern Casamance region. This country’s first president, who was peacefully succeeded by Abdou Diouf (“AHB-doo dyoof”), was the first African elected to the Académie française (“frahn-SEZ”) and was a socialist leader of the Négritude movement. For 10 points, name this West African country first led by Léopold Senghor.
ANSWER: Republic of Senegal [or République du Sénégal]
<EC, World History>
An article by Bonny Ibhawoh about “Deconstructing” a concept developed by this man suggests that that concept was unique because it completely rejected the concept of class struggle. This man translated both Julius Caesar and The Merchant of Venice into his native language, which were later used as part of a nationwide program to force colleges to adopt that language by the year 2000. A document stating this leader’s policies declared that “a poor man does not use money as a weapon.” This leader’s policies of agricultural collectivization, known as (*) “villagization,” turned his country from Africa’s largest food exporter to its largest food importer. Clean water supplies and an increased literacy rate were goals of this man’s program of building rural “development villages.” In 1967, this leader outlined his policy of “familyhood” in the Arusha Declaration. For 10 points, name this promoter of ujaama, the first president of Tanzania.
ANSWER: Julius Nyerere (“nyeh-REH-reh”) [or Julius Kambarage Nyerere]
<IJ, World History>
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

aseem.keyal wrote:
Noble Rot wrote:Can the tossups on "Senegal" and "Nyerere" be posted please?
The paramilitary group FLAM is headquartered in this country and represents the halpulaar population in this country’s northern neighbor. This country dissolved a short-lived federation with its eastern neighbor amidst tensions between its Catholic first president and the Muslim opposition leader Cheikh Tidiane Sy (“sheck tee-dee-AHN see”). Protests over unequal compensation for black tirailleurs (“tee-rye-YURZ”) in the French army led to the Thiaroye (“tyah-RWAH”) massacre in this country. This country entered a loose confederation with a neighboring country after its army defeated a 1981 coup attempt against that neighbor’s leader, (*) Dawda Jawara. The Jola ethnic group has led a decades-long separatist movement in this country’s southern Casamance region. This country’s first president, who was peacefully succeeded by Abdou Diouf (“AHB-doo dyoof”), was the first African elected to the Académie française (“frahn-SEZ”) and was a socialist leader of the Négritude movement. For 10 points, name this West African country first led by Léopold Senghor.
ANSWER: Republic of Senegal [or République du Sénégal]
<EC, World History>
Okay, the Senegal tossup is great, so thank you for whoever wrote this.
aseem.keyal wrote:
An article by Bonny Ibhawoh about “Deconstructing” a concept developed by this man suggests that that concept was unique because it completely rejected the concept of class struggle. This man translated both Julius Caesar and The Merchant of Venice into his native language, which were later used as part of a nationwide program to force colleges to adopt that language by the year 2000. A document stating this leader’s policies declared that “a poor man does not use money as a weapon.” This leader’s policies of agricultural collectivization, known as (*) “villagization,” turned his country from Africa’s largest food exporter to its largest food importer. Clean water supplies and an increased literacy rate were goals of this man’s program of building rural “development villages.” In 1967, this leader outlined his policy of “familyhood” in the Arusha Declaration. For 10 points, name this promoter of ujaama, the first president of Tanzania.
ANSWER: Julius Nyerere (“nyeh-REH-reh”) [or Julius Kambarage Nyerere]
<IJ, World History>
Perhaps the clues about villagization here could contain a "He's not Robert Mugabe, but...", as we talked about strikingly similar policies adopted by Mugabe that also turned Zimbabwe into a food importer rather than a food exporter in one of my classes. It might be late enough in the question that it's not a problem though.

Finally, in terms of questions - thank you to whoever wrote that jazz guitar tossups using clues from Mahavishnu Orchestra. That question really made my day!
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

All the (Senegalese) people interviewed in the Ousmane Sembene documentary I watched a few weeks ago seemed to pronoune Thiaroye as "tya-ROY."
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

I think "big band" should be acceptable for that "swing" tossup; I'm not sure how the clues don't work for "big band" equally as well as for "swing."

I also think the Boethius clue in the tossup on Pavia is misleading; for instance, from Britannica: "Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, (born 470–475? CE, Rome? [Italy]—died 524, Pavia?)" and "After his detention, probably at Pavia, he was executed in 524. His remains were later placed in the church of San Pietro in Ciel d’Oro in Pavia." I buzzed with "Ravenna" at or around the word "executed," having read the preface of an old edition to The Consolation of Philosophy long ago that mentioned Boethius's later life in Ravenna. It's probably best to include some language like "after working at Ravenna" at the beginning of that sentence.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

theMoMA wrote:I think "big band" should be acceptable for that "swing" tossup; I'm not sure how the clues don't work for "big band" equally as well as for "swing."
The Schuller book isn't titled The Big Band Era, for one.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

vinteuil wrote:
theMoMA wrote:I think "big band" should be acceptable for that "swing" tossup; I'm not sure how the clues don't work for "big band" equally as well as for "swing."
The Schuller book isn't titled The Big Band Era, for one.
forcing people to guess book titles is the worst game
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

In the Ito Hirobumi tossup, it mentions how (I'm assuming) An Jung-geun blames him for the death of (I'm assuming) Queen Min by immolation. I'm pretty sure she was stabbed then her body was burned, not death by immolation - don't mess up your various Japanese war crimes!
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

There are eyewitness accounts that Queen Myeongseong was still alive when they set her on fire. Thus her immolation was the finishing blow, though she was stabbed first.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Knickerbocker glory wrote:There are eyewitness accounts that Queen Myeongseong was still alive when they set her on fire. Thus her immolation was the finishing blow, though she was stabbed first.
I think the most agreed upon version of events detail how 50 Japanese assassins killed her, alongside several handmaidens; after they identified the Queen amongst the women, they burned the body. I don’t think there is clear agreement whether she was alive when she was burned - maybe An Jung-geun believed she was (it would be a more tragic and motivating and after all) but I can’t find any source backing this up.
Jeremy "JJ" Tsai
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

User was warned to stop posting contentless images, as per the rules -- mods
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

I thought the third part of the Esquire/JFK/racing bonus was confusingly worded. I was pretty sure that "The Last American Hero" was about auto racing, but the last clue was about the Hunter S. Thompson Kentucky Derby piece, so we said horse racing and got it right. Now, I believe the bonus part said something about "this general type of activity" or the equivalent, and from what the moderator said apparently there were lots of different acceptable answer lines, but I can imagine a team talking itself out of a right answer trying to make the two parts fit together. I'd rather the bonus part have focused on either pieces about horse racing or pieces about auto racing.

In short, while there are similarities between, say, Secretariat and Dale Earnhardt and Roger Bannister, I don't really think of them as being engaged in the same sport.
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### Re: CMST: Specific question discussion

Kevin wrote:I thought the third part of the Esquire/JFK/racing bonus was confusingly worded. I was pretty sure that "The Last American Hero" was about auto racing, but the last clue was about the Hunter S. Thompson Kentucky Derby piece, so we said horse racing and got it right. Now, I believe the bonus part said something about "this general type of activity" or the equivalent, and from what the moderator said apparently there were lots of different acceptable answer lines, but I can imagine a team talking itself out of a right answer trying to make the two parts fit together. I'd rather the bonus part have focused on either pieces about horse racing or pieces about auto racing.

In short, while there are similarities between, say, Secretariat and Dale Earnhardt and Roger Bannister, I don't really think of them as being engaged in the same sport.
Here's the bonus part, for reference:
CMST Packet 2 wrote:Nora Ephron describes various urban myths and recalls receiving a book on frigidity before concluding “I think they are full of shit” in 1972’s “A Few Words About Breasts,” published in this magazine. For 10 points each:
[10] Name this magazine that pioneered New Journalism with the work of Gay Talese (“tuh-LEEZ”), who wrote about a singer’s “state of anguish, deep depression, panic, even rage” in “Frank Sinatra Has a Cold.”